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Navigating Esophageal Dysfunction in Sjogren's Disease

Today we are going to talk about esophageal dysfunction, and how it relates to Sjogren's disease.

Understanding Sjogren's Disease and Xerostomia

Sjögren's disease is an systemic autoimmune disorder which can greatly impact any tissue, joint, ligament or organ in the body. One of Sjogren's most prominent symptom includes damage to the moisture-producing glands in the body. Which often manifests as xerostomia, or dry mouth. This dry mouth condition, stemming from reduced saliva production, sets the stage for complications within the entire gastrointestinal (GI) system.

Esophageal Dysfunction in Sjogren's Disease

Esophageal dysfunction entails difficulties in the regular functioning of the esophagus. This often results in swallowing challenges and may also contribute to conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

To comprehensively understand and address these issues, diagnostic tests such as esophageal manometry and endoscopy play pivotal roles.

First Steps In Esophageal Dysfunction

If you are a Sjogren's patient who is struggling to swallow food, consistently gets food stuck in the throat or have had choking incidents, seeking out the proper testing and support is crucial.

One of the first steps you can do inn advocating for yourself includes keeping a diary or log of these issues so you can bring them into your medical team to discuss your options for testing and treatment

Diagnostic Tests for Esophageal Dysfunction

The following tests have been used to help esophageal dysfunction

  • Dynamic Swallowing Study

  • Endoscopy

  • Fiber-Optic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES)

  • Esophageal Muscle Test (Manometry)

  • Imaging Scans

By leveraging these diagnostic tools, healthcare teams can tailor precise treatment plans for individuals with Sjögren's disease, ensuring a targeted and effective approach to managing esophageal dysfunction.

Dynamic Swallowing Study

The dynamic swallowing study is a diagnostic procedure designed to assess the coordination of mouth and throat muscles during swallowing. In this examination, individuals ingest barium-coated foods with various consistencies. These foods are tracked using imaging technology, providing a visual representation of their journey down the throat. The images generated not only highlight potential issues in muscle coordination but also reveal if there are any instances of food entering the breathing tube. This dynamic approach offers valuable insights into the intricacies of the swallowing process, aiding healthcare professionals in identifying and addressing concerns specific to patients with Sjögren's disease.


Endoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible, lighted instrument called an endoscope down the throat. This enables the healthcare team to visually examine the esophagus. The procedure is invaluable for detecting abnormalities, inflammation, and potential complications such as eosinophilic esophagitis, narrowing, or tumors. Additionally, endoscopy allows for the collection of tissue samples, known as biopsies, which are then studied in detail. This thorough examination aids in tailoring precise treatment plans for individuals with Sjögren's disease, ensuring a targeted approach to managing esophageal dysfunction.

Fiber-Optic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES)

FEES is a specialized study where a healthcare professional utilizes an endoscope to examine the throat during swallowing. This procedure provides real-time insights into the dynamics of the swallowing process. By directly observing the throat, healthcare providers can identify issues related to muscle function and coordination. FEES is a valuable diagnostic tool, especially in the context of Sjögren's disease, where esophageal dysfunction is a common concern.

Esophageal Muscle Test (Manometry)

In esophageal manometry, a small tube is inserted into the esophagus and connected to a pressure recorder. This test measures the muscle contractions of the esophagus during swallowing. The information gathered through manometry helps in assessing the strength and coordination of esophageal muscles. This diagnostic tool is instrumental in providing a quantitative understanding of the functional aspects of the esophagus, aiding gastroenterologists in formulating personalized treatment strategies for patients with Sjögren's disease.

What Patients and Medical Professionals Can Learn

These diagnostic tests aid in precisely identifying the nature and severity of esophageal dysfunction in Sjögren's disease patients.

Medical professionals gain insights into muscle function, motility issues, and potential structural abnormalities. This information is crucial for tailoring an effective management plan.

Tailoring An effective Management Plan With A Swallowing Expert

Based on the diagnostic tests and assessment, swallowing experts can develop individualized treatment plans that address the unique needs and challenges of each Sjögren's patient. These plans may include specific exercises to improve muscle strength and coordination, as well as strategies to enhance safe and efficient swallowing.

Swallowing experts can teach patients various techniques to improve their swallowing function. This may involve modified swallowing techniques, postural adjustments, and maneuvers that help manage dysphagia symptoms. For instance, they may recommend specific head positions or swallowing maneuvers to reduce the risk of aspiration.

Swallowing experts can provide guidance on dietary modifications tailored to the patient's needs. For Sjögren's patients with dry mouth, they may recommend moistening techniques or suggest specific food textures that are easier to swallow. Adjusting the diet to include softer foods and those with higher moisture content can make swallowing more comfortable.

Moving Forward With Esophageal Dysfunction

Swallowing experts play a crucial role in educating patients about their condition. They provide valuable information on the impact of Sjögren's disease on swallowing function, potential complications, and strategies for minimizing risks. Counseling may also address psychological aspects, helping patients cope with the challenges associated with esophageal dysfunction.

Swallowing therapy is an ongoing process, and swallowing experts monitor patients' progress regularly. They can make necessary adjustments to treatment plans based on the patient's response and any changes in their condition. This dynamic approach ensures that interventions remain effective and aligned with the patient's evolving needs.

Managing Sjögren's disease as a whole requires a comprehensive approach, encompassing medical intervention, lifestyle adjustments, and expert guidance.

If you want to delve deeper into understanding Sjögren's and explore a roadmap for effective disease management, sign up for our email list. We send out helpful updates on resources, tips and treatments that can help you manage your Sjogren's disease.



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